var popunder = true;

Windows Keyboard shortcuts

Windows Hotkeys

Shift + F10                    Right-clicks.
Win + L (XP Only):      Locks keyboard. Similar to Lock Workstation.
Win + F or F3:              Open Find dialog. (All Files) F3 may not work in some applications which                                           use F3 for their own find dialogs.
Win + Control + F:       Open Find dialog. (Computers)
Win + U:                       Open Utility Manager.
Win + F1:                      Open Windows help.
Win + Pause:                 Open System Properties dialog.
Win + Tab:                    Cycle through taskbar buttons. Enter clicks, AppsKey or Shift + F10 right-                                           clicks.
Win + Shift + Tab:        Cycle through taskbar buttons in reverse.
Alt + Tab:                      Display CoolSwitch. More commonly known as the AltTab dialog.
Alt + Shift + Tab:          Display CoolSwitch; go in reverse.
Alt + Escape:                 Send active window to the bottom of the z-order.
Alt + Shift + Escape:     Activate the window at the bottom of the z-order.
Alt + F4:                        Close active window; or, if all windows are closed, open shutdown dialog.

Shift while a CD is loading:   Bypass AutoPlay.

Shift while login:   Bypass startup folder. Only those applications will be ignored which are in the
startup folder, not those started from the registry (Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run\)

Ctrl + Alt + Delete or Ctrl + Alt + NumpadDel (Both NumLock states): Invoke the Task Manager or NT Security dialog.

Ctrl + Shift + Escape (2000/XP ) or (Ctrl + Alt + NumpadDot) : Invoke the task manager. On earlier OSes, acts like Ctrl + Escape.
Printscreen:                         Copy screenshot of current screen to clipboard.
Alt + Printscreen:                Copy screenshot of current active window to clipboard.
Ctrl + Alt + Down Arrow:  Invert screen. Untested on OSes other than XP.
Ctrl + Alt + Up Arrow:       Undo inversion.
Win + B :                             Move focus to systray icons.


Ctrl + C or Ctrl + Insert:          Copy.
Ctrl + X or Shift + Delete:       Cut.
Ctrl + V or Shift + Insert:         Paste/Move.
Ctrl + N:                                   New... File, Tab, Entry, etc.
Ctrl + S:                                    Save.
Ctrl + O:                                   Open...
Ctrl + P:                                    Print.
Ctrl + Z:                                    Undo.
Ctrl + A:                                   Select all.
Ctrl + F:                                    Find...
Ctrl+W :                                    to close the current window
Ctrl + F4:                                  Close tab or child window.
F1:                                            Open help.
F11:                                          Toggle full screen mode.
Alt or F10:                               Activate menu bar.
Alt + Space:                             Display system menu. Same as clicking the icon on the titlebar.
Escape:                                     Remove focus from current control/menu, or close dialog box.

Generic Navigation 

Tab:                                    Forward one item.
Shift + Tab:                        Backward one item.
Ctrl + Tab:                         Cycle through tabs/child windows.
Ctrl + Shift + Tab:             Cycle backwards through tabs/child windows.
Enter:                                 If a button's selected, click it, otherwise, click default button.
Space:                               Toggle items such as radio buttons or checkboxes.
Alt + (Letter):                   Activate item corresponding to (Letter). (Letter) is the underlined letter on                                             the item's name.
Ctrl + Left:                       Move cursor to the beginning of previous word.
Ctrl + Right:                     Move cursor to the beginning of next word.
Ctrl + Up:                         Move cursor to beginning of previous paragraph. This and all subsequent                                              Up/Down hotkeys in this section have only been known to work in RichEdit                                          controls.
Ctrl + Down:                    Move cursor to beginning of next paragraph.
Shift + Left:                     Highlight one character to the left.
Shift + Right:                   Highlight one character to the right.
Shift + Up:                       Highlight from current cursor position, to one line up.
Shift + Down:                  Highlight from current cursor position, to one line down.
Ctrl + Shift + Left:           Highlight to beginning of previous word.
Ctrl + Shift + Right:         Highlight to beginning of next word.
Ctrl + Shift + Up:            Highlight to beginning of previous paragraph.
Ctrl + Shift + Down:        Highlight to beginning of next paragraph.
Home:                              Move cursor to top of a scrollable control.
End:                                  Move cursor to bottom of a scrollable control.

Generic File Browser 

Arrow Keys:                   Navigate.
Shift + Arrow Keys:       Select multiple items.
Ctrl + Arrow Keys:        Change focus without changing selection. "Focus" is the object that will run                                           on Enter. Space toggles selection of the focused item.
(Letter):                           Select first found item that begins with (Letter).
BackSpace:                     Go up one level to the parent directory.
Alt + Left:                       Go back one folder.
Alt + Right:                    Go forward one folder.
Enter:                              Activate (Double-click) selected item(s).
Alt + Enter:                    View properties for selected item.
F2:                                  Rename selected item(s).
Ctrl + NumpadPlus:       In a Details view, resizes all columns to fit the longest item in each one.
Delete:                            Delete selected item(s).
Shift + Delete:                Delete selected item(s); bypass Recycle Bin.

Ctrl while dragging item(s):  Copy.
Ctrl + Shift while dragging item(s): Create shortcut(s).

In tree pane, if any:

Left:                      Collapse the current selection if expanded, or select the parent folder.
Right:                    Expand the current selection if collapsed, or select the first subfolder.
NumpadAsterisk:  Expand currently selected directory and all subdirectories. No undo.
NumpadPlus:         Expand currently selected directory.
NumpadMinus:      Collapse currently selected directory.


Right Shift for eight seconds:          Toggle FilterKeys on and off. FilterKeys must be enabled.
Left Alt + Left Shift + PrintScreen: Toggle High Contrast on and off. High Contrast must be enabled.
Left Alt + Left Shift + NumLock:   Toggle MouseKeys on and off. MouseKeys must be enabled.
NumLock for five seconds: Toggle ToggleKeys on and off. ToggleKeys must be enabled.
Shift five times:                                Toggle StickyKeys on and off. StickyKeys must be enabled.

 Microsoft Natural Keyboard with IntelliType Software Installed

Win + L: Log off Windows.
Win + P: Open Print Manager.
Win + C: Open control panel.
Win + V: Open clipboard.
Win + K: Open keyboard properties.
Win + I: Open mouse properties.
Win + A: Open Accessibility properties.
Win + Space: Displays the list of Microsoft IntelliType shortcut keys.
Win + S: Toggle CapsLock on and off.

Remote Desktop Connection Navigation 

Ctrl + Alt + End: Open the NT Security dialog.
Alt + PageUp: Switch between programs.
Alt + PageDown: Switch between programs in reverse.
Alt + Insert: Cycle through the programs in most recently used order.
Alt + Home: Display start menu.
Ctrl + Alt + Break: Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen.
Alt + Delete: Display the Windows menu.
Ctrl + Alt + NumpadMinus: Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing Alt + PrintScreen on a local computer.
Ctrl + Alt + NumpadPlus: Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PrintScreen on a local computer.

Mozilla Firefox Shortcuts 

Ctrl + Tab or Ctrl + PageDown:            Cycle through tabs.
Ctrl + Shift + Tab or Ctrl + PageUp:     Cycle through tabs in reverse.
Ctrl + (1-9):                                            Switch to tab corresponding to number.
Ctrl + N:                                                 New window.
Ctrl + T:                                                 New tab.
Ctrl + L or Alt + D or F6:                      Switch focus to location bar.
Ctrl + Enter:                                           Open location in new tab.
Shift + Enter:                                         Open location in new window.
Ctrl + K or Ctrl + E:                              Switch focus to search bar.
Ctrl + O:                                                Open a local file.
Ctrl + W:                                               Close tab, or window if there's only one tab open.
Ctrl + Shift + W:                                   Close window.
Ctrl + S:                                                 Save page as a local file.
Ctrl + P:                                                 Print page.
Ctrl + F or F3:                                        Open find toolbar.
Ctrl + G or F3:                                       Find next...
Ctrl + Shift + G or Shift + F3:               Find previous...
Ctrl + B or Ctrl + I:                               Open Bookmarks sidebar.
Ctrl + H:                                                Open History sidebar.
Escape:                                                  Stop loading page.
Ctrl + R or F5:                                       Reload current page.
Ctrl + Shift + R or Ctrl + F5 :               Reload current page; bypass cache.
Ctrl + U:                                                View page source.
Ctrl + D:                                                 Bookmark current page.

Ctrl + NumpadPlus or Ctrl + Equals (+/=): Increase text size.
Ctrl + NumpadMinus or Ctrl + Minus: Decrease text size.
Ctrl + Numpad0 or Ctrl + 0: Set text size to default.

Alt + Left or Backspace:                        Back.
Alt + Right or Shift + Backspace:          Forward.
Alt + Home :                                          Open home page.
Ctrl + M:                                                Open new message in integrated mail client.
Ctrl + J:                                                  Open Downloads dialog.

F6: Switch to next frame You must have selected something on the page already, e.g. by use of Tab.
Shift + F6: Switch to previous frame.

Apostrophe ('):                                       Find link as you type.
Slash (/):                                                 Find text as you type.


Note: Must have "keyboard shortcuts" on in settings.

C:                                             Compose new message.
Shift + C:                                 Open new window to compose new message.
Slash (/):                                  Switch focus to search box.
K:                                            Switch focus to the next most recent email. Enter or "O" opens focused                                                  email.
J:                                              Switch focus to the next oldest email.
N:                                             Switch focus to the next message in the "conversation." Enter or "O"                                                      expands/collapses messages.
P:                                             Switch focus to the previous message.
U:                                            Takes you back to the inbox and checks for new mail.
Y:                                            Various actions depending on current view:

Has no effect in "Sent" and "All Mail" views.

Inbox:                                     Archive email or message.
Starred:                                   Unstar email or message.
Spam:                                     Unmark as spam and move back to "Inbox."
Trash:                                     Move back to "Inbox."
Any label:                              Remove the label.
X:                                           "Check" an email. Various actions can be performed against all checked                                                  emails.
S:                                            "Star" an email. Identical to the more familiar term, "flagging."
R:                                            Reply to the email.
A:                                            Reply to all recipients of the email.
F:                                             Forward an email.
Shift + R:                                Reply to the email in a new window.
Shift + A:                                Reply to all recipients of the email in a new window.
Shift + F:                                 Forward an email in a new window.
Shift + 1 (!):                            Mark an email as spam and remove it from the inbox.
G then I:                                  Switch to "Inbox" view.
G then S:                                 Switch to "Starred" view.
G then A:                                Switch to "All Mail" view.
G then C:                                 Switch to "Contacts" view.
G then S:                                 Switch to "Drafts" view.

List of F1-F9 Key Commands for the Command Prompt 

F1 / right arrow: Repeats the letters of the last command line, one by one.
F2: Displays a dialog asking user to "enter the char to copy up to" of the last command line
F3: Repeats the last command line
F4: Displays a dialog asking user to "enter the char to delete up to" of the last command line
F5: Goes back one command line
F6: Enters the traditional CTRL+Z (^z)
F7: Displays a menu with the command line history
F8: Cycles back through previous command lines (beginning with most recent)
F9: Displays a dialog asking user to enter a command number, where 0 is for first command line entered.
Alt+Enter: toggle fullScreen mode.
up/down: scroll thru/repeat previous entries
Esc: delete line
Note: The buffer allows a maximum of 50 command lines. After this number is reached, the first line will be replaced in sequence.

FOR Command Prompt Commands (Click me)



  SHORT CUT KEYS           USE

                 F1                                Help

                 F2                                Rename an item

                 F3                                Open files

             ALT+F4                         Close window or quit program

                 F10                              Activate the menu bar in a program

             CTRL+ ESC                    Open start menu, use the arrow keys to select an item, or TAB to                                                            select the taskbar

             ALT+ TAB                      Return to previous program, or hold down the ALT key while                                                                repeatedly pressing tab to cycle through open programs

             SHIFT+ DEL                  Delete items permanently without sending to recycle bin

               CTRL+ A                      Highlight all the items in window

             CTRL+ C                      Copy

             CTRL+ X                      Cut

             CTRL+ V                      Paste

              CTRL+ Z                     Undo

              CTRL+ Y                     Redo



 Home Jumps to the beginning of the page

 END Jumps to the end of the page

 ESC Stops the current page from loading

 F11 Toggles full screen view

 ALT+ LEFT ARROW Goes back to the previous page

 ALT+ RIGHT ARROW Goes forward to the next page

 ALT+ Home Goes to your Home page

 CTRL+ N Opens a new browser window

 CTRL+ W Closes the active window

 CTRL+ O Opens the address book

 CTRL+ R Reloads the current page

 CTRL+ B Opens the Organized Favorites or Bookmarks windows

 CTRL+ D Add the current page to your Favorites or Bookmarks

 CTRL+ H Opens the history folder

 CTRL+ F Finds text on the current page


One of the keys whose importance may have gone unnoticed by most of us is the Control key (Ctrl). The Control key in combination with the 26 alphabet keys can make a lot of our work easier than we think. The following pair of keys can come in handy when we want tasks faster than while using the mouse.

Operations that can be performed on the text selected:-

 CTRL+ A Select all

 CTRL+ B Bold

 CTRL+ C Copy

 CTRL+ E Justify center

 CTRL+ I Italics

 CTRL+ J Justify full

 CTRL+ L Justify Left

 CTRL+ M Indent

 CTRL+ Q Remove paragraph Formatting

 CTRL+ R Justify right

 CTRL+ T Margin release

 CTRL+ U Underline

These keys combos can be used to do other operations:-

 CTRL+ D Opens Font Dialog Box

 CTRL+ F Find

 CTRL+ G Go to page, section, line, heading etc

 CTRL+ H Find and replace

 CTRL+ K Insert Hyperlink

 CTRL+ N Open a new document

 CTRL+ O Open an existing document

 CTRL+ S Save

 CTRL+ W Close an existing document

 CTRL+ Y Redo

 CTRL+ Z Undo

Besides the alphabet keys, a combination of other keys also helps:-

 CTRL+ LEFT ARROW Jumps one word left

 CTRL+ RIGHT ARROW Jumps one word right

 CTRL+ DOWN ARROW Jumps one para down

 CTRL+ UP ARROW Jumps one para up

 CTRL+ BACKSPACE Delete one word left

 CTRL+ DELETE Delete one word right

 CTRL+ PAGE UP To the beginning of the previous page

 CTRL+ PAGE DOWN to the beginning of the next page

 CTRL+ P Print Dialog box

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